Contents - fhe


Go to content

Main menu

Contents

THE ORIGIN OF THE KURDS 2011
 
 
 
 

Ferdinand Hennerbichler: The Origin of the Kurds

Contents

Abstract  4
Aim  5
Introduction  6
Sources/Methods 8
Definitions  11
The „Kurdish Complex“ according to Gernot Windfuhr 12
DNA Genealogy. Data Evaluation 2010 by Anatole Klyosov 14

Part I. Explanation attempts 1. Linguistics  16

Part I. Explanation attempts 2. Evolutionary Anthropology. DNA Genealogy 24

Part II. Evolutionary Anthropology 1. Genetic Profile of the Kurds. Overview 28

Part II. Evolutionary Anthropology 2. Mitochondrial mtDNA 34

Part II. Evolutionary Anthropology 3. Y-DNA. 3.1 Overview 42

Genetic Profiles of speakers within the „Kurdish Complex“  54
Background: Speakers of the „Kurdish Complex“ today 55
Background: Who is who?  64
Genes-profile Zaza-Speaker  66
Genes-profile Kurmandji-Speaker  67
Dominating  J*- & R*-clans  68

Part II. Evolutionary Anthropology 3. Y-DNA. 3.2 J*-lines  70

Assumed origins of Y-DNA J-lineage  72
J1*-M267 and J2*-M172  79

Part II. Evolutionary Anthropology 3. Y-DNA. 3.3 J*-lines and modal haplotypes  87

Background: Modal Haplotypes. Definition  88
Background: Modal Haplotypes. Most commonly discussed  89
Background: Cohen Modal Haplotypes  90
J Modal Haplotypes in Jews, Kurds and Armenians   93
Yezidis & Kurdish Modal Haplotype. Discussion  97
Genetic relationship Jews - Kurds – Armenians  101
Historic background: Oldest deportations of Jews to Kurdistan 732-722 B.C.  103
Conclusions Kurds-Jews-Armenians  106

Part II. Evolutionary Anthropology 3. Y-DNA. 3.4 R*-clans in Kurds  108

Background: Development of R*-lines Africa-Asia-Europe  109
R* clans found in Kurds living today. Overview  111
Assumed Origin & Dissemination of R1a1 according to Anatole A. Klyosov  114
Dispersal of R1a(1) according to Underhill et al. (2009)  119
R* clans found in Kurds living today. Details   120
Discussion: Influence of immigrant Y-DNA R*-clans on Kurds and their language(s)  121
Preliminary summary J* & R*-clans in Kurds   122
Kurds Northern Fertile Crescent People   123
Migrating R*-clans contributed to linguistic Indo-Europeanization of Kurds  125

Part III. Genes & Languages 1. Principles  126

Language shift  129

Part III. Genes & Languages 2. Elites driven processes  2.1. Role of R*-clans  131

Role of Y-DNA R1A1*. „Aryans“, „Indo-European Clan“  132
Y-DNA R1A1* in speakers within „Kurdish Complex“  133
Dissemination of R1A1* clans from the Russian Plain ca. 3,000 - ca. 1,000 B.C.   134
Dissemination of R1A1* clans in two waves (Russian Plain & Iranian Plateau)   135
R2*M124 forefathers in Kurds    139

Part III. Genes & Languages 2. Elites driven processes 2.2. Role of migrating elites  144

DNA-Research & Mesopotamian Terminology  145
Role of migrating militarily organized groups & elites  147
Y-DNA R1a1 men & Ummān-manda soldiers   149
Ummān-manda - mada - kur 23rd CE B.C. - ca. 500 B.C.   151
Ummān-manda 21st C
E B.C. - ca. 500 B.C.  155
Use of Ummān-manda. Overview   157
Ummān-manda explanation attempts  159
The Cuthean Legend of Naram-Sîn  160
Ummān-manda used in historic terms. Overview  164
Ummān-manda 18th century B.C.   166
Early 2nd millennium B.C.: Semitic (mandu)-soldiers near Kermanshah (NW-Iran)  167
17
th century B.C.: Hittite Empire: Ummān-manda = provincial military units  168
17th century B.C.: „Zukraši Text“   169
15
th century B.C.: Reference to Hurrian-Mitanni as Ummān-manda   170
13th century B.C.: Letter from Amurru king Šaušgamuwa to Ammistamru II of Ugarit  171
8th century B.C.: Neo-Assyrians call Cimmerians Ummân-manda   172
6th century B.C.: Neo-Babylonians call Medians  under Cyaxares and Astyages Ummân-manda     173
6th century B.C.: Neo-Babylon
ians call Medians Ummān-manda   174
6th century B.C.: Achaemenid king Cyrus and Ummān-manda   179
Ummān-manda in historic documents 18th-6th centuries B.C. - Results    180
Ummān-manda. Summary discussion   184
Ummān-manda. Graphics   185

Part III. Genes & Languages 2. Elites driven processes 2.3 Terminological umbrella labels for mountains/highlands North & North-East   189

Issue: „kur-“ labels denoting mountain people north and northeast of Mesopotamia  190
Terminological umbrella designations 3rd mill. - ca. 500 B.C.  191
Umm
ān-manda. Used mainly ca. 2000-500 B.C.  192
Kalam. Used mainly ca. 3000-1500 B.C. (Mesopotamia) for Land of Sumer   193
Mada. Used mainly ca. 2500-1500 B.C. (Near East & Eurasia) for foreign lands   194
Kur. Used mainly ca. 2500-1500 B.C. (Near East & Eurasia) for mountain lands   195
Indications. Summary  196
Mada. Umland/Hinterland/periphery/provincial  197
ma-da: country, territory, land  197
Overview. Expressions for foreign/mountain land (people) 3rd millenium B.C. - ca. 500 B.C. KI & ma-da & kur & > kur-ta & > kur-ti 200
KI, ma-da & kur-terms 201-205

Part III. Genes & Languages 2. Elites driven processes 2.4 Collective terms for mountaineers in far North & North-East  kurda - karda - kurta - kurti  206

Issue: Compound word stem „kur“ in „kur-da“, „kur-ta“ or „kur-ti“ for foreign/mountain land/people  208
Continuity of ancient collective terms kurda, karda,  kurti 23rd-9th ce. B.C.  209
Background: Mesopotamian control of North and Northeast  213
Mesopotamian conquests of the far North; kurda, kurta, kurti 23rd-12th centuries B.C.   217
Kurda Sinjar. Symbol for begin of multi-cultural hilly/mountainous North 23rd century B.C.  218
Kurda 23rd century B.C. Naram-Sîn (2273-2219 B.C.): kùr-da.: From Kurda to Azuhinnum  219
kur-da: MARI-Archives - Sinjar - ca. 1800 B.C.   222
„kurda“ Sinjar ca. 1800 B.C. - Classification  226
Other ancient „kur-da“ terms nothing to do with Kurds or land of Kurds (Kurdistan)  227
„kùr-da“ in Hettitian treaties 14th ce. B.C. 228
„kùr-dá“ in connection with 4 Old Indian gods  232
Kurta. General ancient term for mountain land/people, foreign/enemy land/people  233
Kurti. „kur-ti“ in Hettitian & Assyrian sources 14th-13th ce. B.C. 239
kur-ti, kur-ta, kur-da in Hettitian treaties 14th ce. B.C.  240
Summary: „kur-ti“ no direct connection to Kurds 14th ce. B.C.  243
Assyrian rulers denoting mountain people as Kurti N&NE of Mesopotamia since 13th ce. B.C.  244
Kurti in Assyrian sources 13th-12th  centuries B.C.  245
Background topo/ethnonyms 13th-12th centuries B.C.  246
„kur-ti“ in Assyrian sources 13th-12th centuries B.C.: Tukulti-ninurta I. (1233-1197 B.C.)  248
„kur-ti“ in Assyrian sources 13th-12th centuries B.C.: Tiglath-Pileser I. (1114-1076 B.C.) 252
„kur-ti“ in Assyrian sources strong indication to ancestors of Kurds. Summary  257
Karda. 21st century B.C. North-East (NW Iran of today)  259
ma-da kar-da.-ka land of Karda. Earliest example for militarily organized mountaineers in the far North-East (NW Iran of today) 21st century B.C.  260
Karda. Struggle of Mesopotamians to get geo-strategic important East-West root Lullubum-Gutium under control and establish a stronghold east of Zagros in (NW) Iran of today  261
Karda and early Semitic Mesopotamian influence 21st century B.C. possibly also on forefathers of Kurds in NW Iran of today  262
Karda. Jean Geneviève François Thureau-Dangin (1872-1944)  263
Karda and „su-people“  265
Karda. Godfrey Rolles Driver (1892-1975): Outdated interpretation of „Su-people“ „south of lake Van“ South-East Anatolia  266
Karda. Piotr Steinkeller: interprets LU.SU(.A) as a writing for S[Š]imaški   269
Karda. LU.SU(.A) = S[Š]imaški indicating location of kar-da.-ka in NW Iran of today  271
Karda. Douglas R. Frayne. Interprets LU.SU(.A) according to Piotr Steinkeller as S[Š]imaški  272
Karda. Interpretation of kar-da.-ka (the land of Karda) next to the S[Š]imaški pointing to oldest Kurdish groups in NW Iran of today  and possibly also to forefathers of the Kárdakes & Cyrtians (Gk. Kýrtioi, Lat. Cyrtii)  275
Karda explained from Akkadian qardu (gardu)  277
kar-da.-ka from qardu  278
kar-da.-ka from qardu. Argumentation. Interdisciplinary classification: DNA Genealogy  279
kar-da.-ka from qardu. Argumentation. Interdisciplinary classification: Linguistic (ancient terms): qardu [gardu]   285
kar-da.-ka from qardu. Argumentation. Graphic summary  287
qardu > kar-da.-ka > kárdakes?  288
kar-da.-ka = land (.) of mountain people [Kurds] (kar-da[ka]). Summary  289

Part III. Genes & Languages 2. Elites driven processes 2.5 Collective terms for mountaineers in far North & North-East kur-terms prevailing  290

Issue: „kur“ prevailing as most popular and not pejorative burdened denotation for mountaineers in the far North and Northeast of Mesopotamia  291
Term label concepts. Language-Ethnicity  292
Introduction: Tradition and continuity of umbrella term labels since 3rd me. B.C.  293
Relationship Language, Ethnicity, Material & Spiritual Culture (Gernot Windfuhr)  294
Land/Mountain Label: Šubartu, Šadû,
, kalam, mada, Ummān-manda, kur, kurti, karda  295
S[Š]ubir/S[Š]ubar[t]u[m]  296
Findings Piotr Michalowski  297
Land of Subartu: From the Cedar Mountain to Anšan  302
Šadû. Akkadian „šadû“ equivalent for Sumerian „kur“ for mountaineers in the far North and Northeast of Mesopotamia  304
Why „kur“-terms prevailed for mountaineers N&NE Mesopotamia  307

Part IV. Linguistic Evidence 1. Original language of Kurds. Assumed Proto-non-Iranian. Multi-lingual parts of ancient land of Kurds. Hurro-Urartian dominating ca. 1000-600 B.C.  311

Aim Linguistic Evidence: supporting indications for the existence of Kurds B.C.E. in their traditional habitat  312
Proto-Non-Iranian assumed for all Iranian-speakers of today south of BMAC (G. Windfuhr)  313
Multi-lingual parts of Kurdistan 21st ce. B.C.  314
„Kurdistan“ dominated by Hurro-Urartian from ca. 1000 until ca. 600 B.C. (Ran Zadok)  315

Part IV. Linguistic Evidence 2. Indo-Europeanization of Kurds, North: Russian Plain-Mitanni, East: Iranian Plateau-NW Iran of today  321

Part IV. Linguistic Evidence 2.1 Indo-Iranian Origins and Kurds 2.1.a DNA Genealogy - Role of R1A1*  322

Background: Genes & Language Affiliation  323
Exceptional DNA position of „Kurdish Complex“ within Iranian (G. Windfuhr quoting LL Cavalli-Sforza)   324
Introduction. Nomenclature. Positions  327
Nomenclature. Linguistic   328
Indo-Iranian Origins. Gernot Windfuhr   329
Nomenclature. DNA Genealogy  333
Aryan Origins. Anatole A. Klyosov  334
DNA Genealogy. Dispersal of R1A1  338
Processes of Indo-Europeanization explained out of Kurgan-Hypothesis  339
Expansion of R1a1 east via BMAC into Iran a & India  340
Expansion of R1a1* from the Russian PLain south   341
DNA Genealogy & Linguistics  342
First waves of R1A1 from the Russian Plain south 2000-1400 B.C. indicating a strong influence on speakers of the „Kurdish Complex“  343
Role of „Aryan“ / „Indo-European Clan“ R1A1 2,240-1,140 B.C. Hurri-Mitanni & the „Kurdish Complex“   344
Old Indoarian in ancient Mitanni of the 2nd millennium B.C. according to Prof. Manfred Mayrhofer, Vienna    345
Kurds highest measured ethno-genetic percentages of R1A1 men ancestors on ancient Hurrian-Mitanni soil   346
Mesopotamian cuneiform term labels like Ummān-manda, Kurda, Karda, Kurti 21st-12th centuries B.C. seem to confirm influence of R1A1 men ancestors on processes of Indo Europeanizationsincluding on forefathers of Kurds  347
Disputed early Indo-European in Mitanni; Za-a-lu-d/ti-iš = from far away people   348

Part IV. Linguistic Evidence 2.1 Indo-Iranian Origins and Kurds 2.1.b Role of R1A1 & J2*M172  349

Issue: J*- and R*- patrilineal ancestors in Kurds suggest involvement of both lines in different linguistic processes. Traces for R1A1 & J2*M172 in Kurds  350
No equation language-ethnicity  351
Discussion: Traces for Zaza & Gorani  352
Discussion: Ludwig Paul on Evolution of Kurdish   353
Discussion: Traces for Zaza 354
Zaza- & Gorani-speaking elites immigrated via Khorasan-Teheran?  355
Ludwig Paul: necessary to consider also non-linguistic factors   356
Ludwig Paul on assumed origins of Zaza & Dimli   358
Background: Zaza (Dimli) - Elburz & Khorasan   359
DNA Genealogy Findings R1a1 in Zaza-Speaker   360
Traces for Zaza. Discussion  361
Discussion: Traces for Gorani  363
Discussion: Gorani („Kurdish Complex“) and  Yaghnobi (Sogdia) in Central Asia: Linguistics: unique forms of ancient Iranian; DNA Genealogy: R1A1 indicating common Northern Iranian Language Continuum including Kurds  365
Influence of R1A1 clans/groups/tribes Central Asia - Eurasia - Europe  366
J2* Kurdistan-Caucasus-Central Asia   367
Correlation Scythian-Kurds-„Sogdia“ (Yaghnobi)  369
Dispersal R1a(1) according to Underhill et al. (2009)  370
DNA Genealogy: Anatole Klyosov: R1A1 in „Kurdish Complex“ & Yaghnobi  371
Klyosov: J2* nothing to do with Indo-European Language(s)  372

Part IV. Linguistic Evidence 2.1 Indo-Iranian Origins and Kurds 2.1.c Old Iranian NW Iran  373

Old Scythian could have had some input during the early Iranization of the Kurds (Gernot Windfuhr)   374
Geographically independent ergative constructions in Gorani & Yaghnobi show ancient Old Iranian roots   375
Urartian ergative possible contact feature with early Kurdish (Gernot Windfuhr)   376
Ergative constructions in Old Persian (Median), Aramaic and in symbiotic Kurdish  377
Parsua - Media - Parsuaš  378
Immigrating Iranian Parsua people still remembered in Iranian Kurdistan   379
Kurdish and Old Persian different branches of Iranian; Parsua in Zagros and Parsuwash in Fars two distinct groups  380
Northern Old Iranian Language Continuum. Achaemenid Persis derived out of Neo-Elam (Ran Zadok)  381

Part IV. Linguistic Evidence 3. Findings 382

Kurds linguistically Iranianized in pre-Achaemenid or pre-Median periods (Gernot Windfuhr)  383
Linguistic findings. Summary   384
Conclusion: Kurds have a history dating back B.C.E. in their ancestral homeland  385

Terminological explanation Kurd & Kurdistan  386

Map Kurdistan  387

Acknowledgements  389





 

The Origin of the Kurds

Paperback: 390 pp (PPT colour slides), ca. 130 graphs & photos

ISBN: 978-3-943048-31-5

Copyright: Ferdinand Hennerbichler
Edition: First Edition
Publisher: edition winterwork, Borsdorf, Germany (www.winterwork.de)
Published: August 2011
Language: English
Pages: 390
Maps/Graphs: ca. 130 (colour)
Binding: Paperback
Interior Ink: Full colour
Dimensions: A5 Landscape
 
 
Back to content | Back to main menu