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THE ORIGIN OF THE KURDS 2011

Ferdinand Hennerbichler: The Origin of the Kurds

Contents

Abstract 4
Aim 5
Introduction 6
Sources/Methods 8
Definitions 11
The „Kurdish Complex“ according to Gernot Windfuhr 12
DNA Genealogy. Data Evaluation 2010 by Anatole Klyosov 14

Part I. Explanation attempts 1. Linguistics 16

Part I. Explanation attempts 2. Evolutionary Anthropology. DNA Genealogy 24

Part II. Evolutionary Anthropology 1. Genetic Profile of the Kurds. Overview 28

Part II. Evolutionary Anthropology 2. Mitochondrial mtDNA 34

Part II. Evolutionary Anthropology 3. Y-DNA. 3.1 Overview 42

Genetic Profiles of speakers within the „Kurdish Complex“ 54
Background: Speakers of the „Kurdish Complex“ today 55
Background: Who is who? 64
Genes-profile Zaza-Speaker 66
Genes-profile Kurmandji-Speaker 67
Dominating J*- & R*-clans 68

Part II. Evolutionary Anthropology 3. Y-DNA. 3.2 J*-lines 70

Assumed origins of Y-DNA J-lineage 72
J1*-M267 and J2*-M172 79

Part II. Evolutionary Anthropology 3. Y-DNA. 3.3 J*-lines and modal haplotypes 87

Background: Modal Haplotypes. Definition 88
Background: Modal Haplotypes. Most commonly discussed 89
Background: Cohen Modal Haplotypes 90
J Modal Haplotypes in Jews, Kurds and Armenians 93
Yezidis & Kurdish Modal Haplotype. Discussion 97
Genetic relationship Jews - Kurds – Armenians 101
Historic background: Oldest deportations of Jews to Kurdistan 732-722 B.C. 103
Conclusions Kurds-Jews-Armenians 106

Part II. Evolutionary Anthropology 3. Y-DNA. 3.4 R*-clans in Kurds 108

Background: Development of R*-lines Africa-Asia-Europe 109
R* clans found in Kurds living today. Overview 111
Assumed Origin & Dissemination of R1a1 according to Anatole A. Klyosov 114
Dispersal of R1a(1) according to Underhill et al. (2009) 119
R* clans found in Kurds living today. Details 120
Discussion: Influence of immigrant Y-DNA R*-clans on Kurds and their language(s) 121
Preliminary summary J* & R*-clans in Kurds 122
Kurds Northern Fertile Crescent People 123
Migrating R*-clans contributed to linguistic Indo-Europeanization of Kurds 125

Part III. Genes & Languages 1. Principles 126

Language shift 129

Part III. Genes & Languages 2. Elites driven processes 2.1. Role of R*-clans 131

Role of Y-DNA R1A1*. „Aryans“, „Indo-European Clan“ 132
Y-DNA R1A1* in speakers within „Kurdish Complex“ 133
Dissemination of R1A1* clans from the Russian Plain ca. 3,000 - ca. 1,000 B.C. 134
Dissemination of R1A1* clans in two waves (Russian Plain & Iranian Plateau) 135
R2*M124 forefathers in Kurds 139

Part III. Genes & Languages 2. Elites driven processes 2.2. Role of migrating elites 144

DNA-Research & Mesopotamian Terminology 145
Role of migrating militarily organized groups & elites 147
Y-DNA R1a1 men & Ummân-manda soldiers 149
Ummân-manda - mada - kur 23rd CE B.C. - ca. 500 B.C. 151
Ummân-manda 21st C
E B.C. - ca. 500 B.C. 155
Use of Ummân-manda. Overview 157
Ummân-manda explanation attempts 159
The Cuthean Legend of Naram-Sîn 160
Ummân-manda used in historic terms. Overview 164
Ummân-manda 18th century B.C. 166
Early 2nd millennium B.C.: Semitic (mandu)-soldiers near Kermanshah (NW-Iran) 167
17
th century B.C.: Hittite Empire: Ummân-manda = provincial military units 168
17th century B.C.: „Zukraši Text“ 169
15
th century B.C.: Reference to Hurrian-Mitanni as Ummân-manda 170
13th century B.C.: Letter from Amurru king Šaušgamuwa to Ammistamru II of Ugarit 171
8th century B.C.: Neo-Assyrians call Cimmerians Ummân-manda 172
6th century B.C.: Neo-Babylonians call Medians under Cyaxares and Astyages Ummân-manda 173
6th century B.C.: Neo-Babylon
ians call Medians Ummân-manda 174
6th century B.C.: Achaemenid king Cyrus and Ummân-manda 179
Ummân-manda in historic documents 18th-6th centuries B.C. - Results 180
Ummân-manda. Summary discussion 184
Ummân-manda. Graphics 185

Part III. Genes & Languages 2. Elites driven processes 2.3 Terminological umbrella labels for mountains/highlands North & North-East 189

Issue: „kur-“ labels denoting mountain people north and northeast of Mesopotamia 190
Terminological umbrella designations 3rd mill. - ca. 500 B.C. 191
Umm
ân-manda. Used mainly ca. 2000-500 B.C. 192
Kalam. Used mainly ca. 3000-1500 B.C. (Mesopotamia) for Land of Sumer 193
Mada. Used mainly ca. 2500-1500 B.C. (Near East & Eurasia) for foreign lands 194
Kur. Used mainly ca. 2500-1500 B.C. (Near East & Eurasia) for mountain lands 195
Indications. Summary 196
Mada. Umland/Hinterland/periphery/provincial 197
ma-da: country, territory, land 197
Overview. Expressions for foreign/mountain land (people) 3rd millenium B.C. - ca. 500 B.C. KI & ma-da & kur & > kur-ta & > kur-ti 200
KI, ma-da & kur-terms 201-205

Part III. Genes & Languages 2. Elites driven processes 2.4 Collective terms for mountaineers in far North & North-East kurda - karda - kurta - kurti 206

Issue: Compound word stem „kur“ in „kur-da“, „kur-ta“ or „kur-ti“ for foreign/mountain land/people 208
Continuity of ancient collective terms kurda, karda, kurti 23rd-9th ce. B.C. 209
Background: Mesopotamian control of North and Northeast 213
Mesopotamian conquests of the far North; kurda, kurta, kurti 23rd-12th centuries B.C. 217
Kurda Sinjar. Symbol for begin of multi-cultural hilly/mountainous North 23rd century B.C. 218
Kurda 23rd century B.C. Naram-Sîn (2273-2219 B.C.): kůr-da.: From Kurda to Azuhinnum 219
kur-da: MARI-Archives - Sinjar - ca. 1800 B.C. 222
„kurda“ Sinjar ca. 1800 B.C. - Classification 226
Other ancient „kur-da“ terms nothing to do with Kurds or land of Kurds (Kurdistan) 227
„kůr-da“ in Hettitian treaties 14th ce. B.C. 228
„kůr-dá“ in connection with 4 Old Indian gods 232
Kurta. General ancient term for mountain land/people, foreign/enemy land/people 233
Kurti. „kur-ti“ in Hettitian & Assyrian sources 14th-13th ce. B.C. 239
kur-ti, kur-ta, kur-da in Hettitian treaties 14th ce. B.C. 240
Summary: „kur-ti“ no direct connection to Kurds 14th ce. B.C. 243
Assyrian rulers denoting mountain people as Kurti N&NE of Mesopotamia since 13th ce. B.C. 244
Kurti in Assyrian sources 13th-12th centuries B.C. 245
Background topo/ethnonyms 13th-12th centuries B.C. 246
„kur-ti“ in Assyrian sources 13th-12th centuries B.C.: Tukulti-ninurta I. (1233-1197 B.C.) 248
„kur-ti“ in Assyrian sources 13th-12th centuries B.C.: Tiglath-Pileser I. (1114-1076 B.C.) 252
„kur-ti“ in Assyrian sources strong indication to ancestors of Kurds. Summary 257
Karda. 21st century B.C. North-East (NW Iran of today) 259
ma-da kar-da.-ka land of Karda. Earliest example for militarily organized mountaineers in the far North-East (NW Iran of today) 21st century B.C. 260
Karda. Struggle of Mesopotamians to get geo-strategic important East-West root Lullubum-Gutium under control and establish a stronghold east of Zagros in (NW) Iran of today 261
Karda and early Semitic Mesopotamian influence 21st century B.C. possibly also on forefathers of Kurds in NW Iran of today 262
Karda. Jean Genevičve François Thureau-Dangin (1872-1944) 263
Karda and „su-people“ 265
Karda. Godfrey Rolles Driver (1892-1975): Outdated interpretation of „Su-people“ „south of lake Van“ South-East Anatolia 266
Karda. Piotr Steinkeller: interprets LU.SU(.A) as a writing for S[Š]imaški 269
Karda. LU.SU(.A) = S[Š]imaški indicating location of kar-da.-ka in NW Iran of today 271
Karda. Douglas R. Frayne. Interprets LU.SU(.A) according to Piotr Steinkeller as S[Š]imaški 272
Karda. Interpretation of kar-da.-ka (the land of Karda) next to the S[Š]imaški pointing to oldest Kurdish groups in NW Iran of today and possibly also to forefathers of the Kárdakes & Cyrtians (Gk. Kýrtioi, Lat. Cyrtii) 275
Karda explained from Akkadian qardu (gardu) 277
kar-da.-ka from qardu 278
kar-da.-ka from qardu. Argumentation. Interdisciplinary classification: DNA Genealogy 279
kar-da.-ka from qardu. Argumentation. Interdisciplinary classification: Linguistic (ancient terms): qardu [gardu] 285
kar-da.-ka from qardu. Argumentation. Graphic summary 287
qardu > kar-da.-ka > kárdakes? 288
kar-da.-ka = land (.) of mountain people [Kurds] (kar-da[ka]). Summary 289

Part III. Genes & Languages 2. Elites driven processes 2.5 Collective terms for mountaineers in far North & North-East kur-terms prevailing 290

Issue: „kur“ prevailing as most popular and not pejorative burdened denotation for mountaineers in the far North and Northeast of Mesopotamia 291
Term label concepts. Language-Ethnicity 292
Introduction: Tradition and continuity of umbrella term labels since 3rd me. B.C. 293
Relationship Language, Ethnicity, Material & Spiritual Culture (Gernot Windfuhr) 294
Land/Mountain Label: Šubartu, Šadű,
, kalam, mada, Ummân-manda, kur, kurti, karda 295
S[Š]ubir/S[Š]ubar[t]u[m] 296
Findings Piotr Michalowski 297
Land of Subartu: From the Cedar Mountain to Anšan 302
Šadű. Akkadian „šadű“ equivalent for Sumerian „kur“ for mountaineers in the far North and Northeast of Mesopotamia 304
Why „kur“-terms prevailed for mountaineers N&NE Mesopotamia 307

Part IV. Linguistic Evidence 1. Original language of Kurds. Assumed Proto-non-Iranian. Multi-lingual parts of ancient land of Kurds. Hurro-Urartian dominating ca. 1000-600 B.C. 311

Aim Linguistic Evidence: supporting indications for the existence of Kurds B.C.E. in their traditional habitat 312
Proto-Non-Iranian assumed for all Iranian-speakers of today south of BMAC (G. Windfuhr) 313
Multi-lingual parts of Kurdistan 21st ce. B.C. 314
„Kurdistan“ dominated by Hurro-Urartian from ca. 1000 until ca. 600 B.C. (Ran Zadok) 315

Part IV. Linguistic Evidence 2. Indo-Europeanization of Kurds, North: Russian Plain-Mitanni, East: Iranian Plateau-NW Iran of today 321

Part IV. Linguistic Evidence 2.1 Indo-Iranian Origins and Kurds 2.1.a DNA Genealogy - Role of R1A1* 322

Background: Genes & Language Affiliation 323
Exceptional DNA position of „Kurdish Complex“ within Iranian (G. Windfuhr quoting LL Cavalli-Sforza) 324
Introduction. Nomenclature. Positions 327
Nomenclature. Linguistic 328
Indo-Iranian Origins. Gernot Windfuhr 329
Nomenclature. DNA Genealogy 333
Aryan Origins. Anatole A. Klyosov 334
DNA Genealogy. Dispersal of R1A1 338
Processes of Indo-Europeanization explained out of Kurgan-Hypothesis 339
Expansion of R1a1 east via BMAC into Iran a & India 340
Expansion of R1a1* from the Russian PLain south 341
DNA Genealogy & Linguistics 342
First waves of R1A1 from the Russian Plain south 2000-1400 B.C. indicating a strong influence on speakers of the „Kurdish Complex“ 343
Role of „Aryan“ / „Indo-European Clan“ R1A1 2,240-1,140 B.C. Hurri-Mitanni & the „Kurdish Complex“ 344
Old Indoarian in ancient Mitanni of the 2nd millennium B.C. according to Prof. Manfred Mayrhofer, Vienna 345
Kurds highest measured ethno-genetic percentages of R1A1 men ancestors on ancient Hurrian-Mitanni soil 346
Mesopotamian cuneiform term labels like Ummân-manda, Kurda, Karda, Kurti 21st-12th centuries B.C. seem to confirm influence of R1A1 men ancestors on processes of Indo Europeanizationsincluding on forefathers of Kurds 347
Disputed early Indo-European in Mitanni; Za-a-lu-d/ti-iš = from far away people 348

Part IV. Linguistic Evidence 2.1 Indo-Iranian Origins and Kurds 2.1.b Role of R1A1 & J2*M172 349

Issue: J*- and R*- patrilineal ancestors in Kurds suggest involvement of both lines in different linguistic processes. Traces for R1A1 & J2*M172 in Kurds 350
No equation language-ethnicity 351
Discussion: Traces for Zaza & Gorani 352
Discussion: Ludwig Paul on Evolution of Kurdish 353
Discussion: Traces for Zaza 354
Zaza- & Gorani-speaking elites immigrated via Khorasan-Teheran? 355
Ludwig Paul: necessary to consider also non-linguistic factors 356
Ludwig Paul on assumed origins of Zaza & Dimli 358
Background: Zaza (Dimli) - Elburz & Khorasan 359
DNA Genealogy Findings R1a1 in Zaza-Speaker 360
Traces for Zaza. Discussion 361
Discussion: Traces for Gorani 363
Discussion: Gorani („Kurdish Complex“) and Yaghnobi (Sogdia) in Central Asia: Linguistics: unique forms of ancient Iranian; DNA Genealogy: R1A1 indicating common Northern Iranian Language Continuum including Kurds 365
Influence of R1A1 clans/groups/tribes Central Asia - Eurasia - Europe 366
J2* Kurdistan-Caucasus-Central Asia 367
Correlation Scythian-Kurds-„Sogdia“ (Yaghnobi) 369
Dispersal R1a(1) according to Underhill et al. (2009) 370
DNA Genealogy: Anatole Klyosov: R1A1 in „Kurdish Complex“ & Yaghnobi 371
Klyosov: J2* nothing to do with Indo-European Language(s) 372

Part IV. Linguistic Evidence 2.1 Indo-Iranian Origins and Kurds 2.1.c Old Iranian NW Iran 373

Old Scythian could have had some input during the early Iranization of the Kurds (Gernot Windfuhr) 374
Geographically independent ergative constructions in Gorani & Yaghnobi show ancient Old Iranian roots 375
Urartian ergative possible contact feature with early Kurdish (Gernot Windfuhr) 376
Ergative constructions in Old Persian (Median), Aramaic and in symbiotic Kurdish 377
Parsua - Media - Parsuaš 378
Immigrating Iranian Parsua people still remembered in Iranian Kurdistan 379
Kurdish and Old Persian different branches of Iranian; Parsua in Zagros and Parsuwash in Fars two distinct groups 380
Northern Old Iranian Language Continuum. Achaemenid Persis derived out of Neo-Elam (Ran Zadok) 381

Part IV. Linguistic Evidence 3. Findings 382

Kurds linguistically Iranianized in pre-Achaemenid or pre-Median periods (Gernot Windfuhr) 383
Linguistic findings. Summary 384
Conclusion: Kurds have a history dating back B.C.E. in their ancestral homeland 385

Terminological explanation Kurd & Kurdistan 386

Map Kurdistan 387

Acknowledgements 389




The Origin of the Kurds

Paperback: 390 pp (PPT colour slides), ca. 130 graphs & photos

ISBN: 978-3-943048-31-5

Copyright: Ferdinand Hennerbichler

Edition: First Edition
Publisher: edition winterwork, Borsdorf, Germany (www.winterwork.de)
Published: August 2011
Language: English
Pages: 390
Maps/Graphs: ca. 130 (colour)
Binding: Paperback
Interior Ink: Full colour
Dimensions: A5 Landscape


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