Assumed Origin & Dissemination of R1A1 according to Anatole A. Klyosov
„There are newest data on R1A1 available. The most ancient discovered R1a1 haplotypes thus far are from the Uygur-Xinjiang province of China ,behind‘ India, to the East, between Mongolia, Russia, Kyrgyzstan and China. I have published the R1a1 data in 2009 (J. Genet. Geneal), the haplotypes (more than 30), the haplotype tree and calculations pointing at 21,000 years before present in North China.
A couple of month ago a paper by Zhong et al. was published in Molecular Biology and Evolution (September 13, 2010), which contains a large set of R1a1 haplotypes, particularly from East Asia. The haplotype tree again identifies ancient R1a1 haplotypes, now from North-West China (Altai region) with a common ancestor - for different branches - between 19,000 and 23,000 years before present. Hence, 21,000 ybp for R1a1 in South Siberia (Altai, North China) is confirmed.
Even the very fact that the base (ancestral) European haplotypes differs from the base Uygur haplotype by 7 mutations on 8 markers sets THEIR common ancestors apart by 26,000 years ago (this time span is needed - statistically - to accumulate 7 mutations in 8 markers employed), and places THEIR common ancestor at 21,000 years ago (considering timespans to common ancestors for R1a1 haplotypes in Europe and in the Altai region).
Besides, the Altai (Uygurs) R1a1 haplotypes (as well as Tibetan, Mongolian and Chinese R1a1 haplotypes) belong to the ancient R1a1 subclade, with DYS392=13, while the Indian, Pakistani, Turkey, and European haplotypes typically belong to a much more "younger" subclade. It seems that a borderline between the ancient and the younger subclades goes through Tibet. There are very few DYS392=13 haplotypes in Europe, and they have apparently arrived to Europe some 12-10 thousand years ago. I have described them in the same paper in J. Genet. Geneal., cited above.“
Source: The Origin of the Kurds (2011) p 114
„The focal point for the assumed origin of R1A1 lies in the Uygur-Xinjiang province of China ,behind‘ India, to the East, between Mongolia, Russia, Kyrgyzstan and China.
To the best of my knowledge the R1a1 bearers went from there through India, Pakistan, Iran, Asia Minor and to Europe, to the Balkans. This way is the only way to salvage the ,Anatolian theory‘, according to which proto-Indo-European language arose in Anatolia some 11,000-9,000 years before present (Gray and Atkinson, Nature, 2003). Of course, it does not support the ,Anatolian Heimat‘ for IE languages, since the Anatolia is just an intermediate point on their migration way, however, it connects Anatolia and the Balkans IE-language-wise, and brings the earlier dates for proto-IE language in line with the arrival date of R1a1 to the Balkans.
Only from there R1a1 went to the Russian Plain, and probably via ,Germany‘, following the Corded Wire archaeological culture, to arrive there around 4,800 years bp.
In that case R1a1 made a loop – from Altai by the ,Southern route‘ (see above) via Anatolia to the Balkans, and from there via ,Germany‘ to the Russian Plain (from where R1a1 spread from the Baltics to the Black Sea), and then over the Caucasus back to Anatolia, Mitanni, Arabic Peninsula, and by ,parallel‘ route to the South Ural (establishing Andronovo culture on their way between 4,200-3,300 ybp) and from there to India 3,500 ybp, and by another parallel route to the Middle Asia (Avestan Aryans) at around 4,200-3,300, and from there to the Iranian Plateau around 3,500 ybp. That is why the ,ancient Iranian IE language‘ arose in the beginning of the 2nd millennium B.C. (around 3,900-3,700 B.C,), yet not in Iran, but before that, to the North.“ Source: The Origin of the Kurds (2011) p 115
The Origin of the Kurds (2011)
Source and Copyright: Hennerbichler, Ferdinand: The Origin of the Kurds (2011) p 116